6 million died of non-communicable diseases in India in 2016

Seven million deaths were caused by tobacco use last year

Triad of troubles a health hazard

The Lancet published "Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016", and also 'Life, death and disability in 2016 study on Friday.

"Our findings indicate people are living longer and, over the past decade, we identified substantial progress in driving down death rates from some of the world's most pernicious diseases and conditions, such as under-age-5 mortality and malaria", Dr. Christopher Murray, co-author of the report and director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington in Seattle, said in a statement. For instance, in 1990 about 11 million children under age 5 died, while 16.4 million passed away in 1970.

The average lifespan is now 72.5 years (75.3 years for women and 69.8 years for men), the report found. Japan had the highest life expectancy in 2016, at 83.9 years, while the Central African Republic had the lowest, at 50.2 years.

The study shows that past year, there were 128.8 million live births and 54.7 million deaths. The proportion of life spent being ill is higher in poor countries than in wealthy ones.

These "exemplar" nations may offer insight into which policies are most successful for accelerating health progress, the study authors noted.

Non-communicable diseases accounted for 72.3% of all deaths (39.5 million) in 2016. It was the leading cause of premature deaths apart from in low income regions. Globally, ischaemic heart disease caused 9.48 million deaths in 2016 - an increase of 19% globally since 2006. Diabetes caused 1.43mn deaths globally in 2016, an increase of 31.1% since 2006.

About 19 percent of deaths in 2016 were from communicable diseases, maternal diseases (which occur during pregnancy and childbirth), neonatal diseases (which occur around the newborn period) and nutritional diseases (which include nutritional deficiencies); about 8 percent of deaths were from injuries. However, the report also found an increase in deaths due to drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB).

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Deaths from infectious diseases have decreased since 2006, but HIV/AIDS claimed 1.03 million lives in 2016 (a 45.8% decrease since 2006), while 719,500 people died from malaria (a 25.9% decrease) and 1.21 million died from tuberculosis (a 20.9% decrease) previous year.

Despite an overall decrease in deaths from self-harm and interpersonal violence, there was a rise in the number of deaths from firearms - 67500 from self-harm and 161000 from assault (increase of 4.3% and 5.7% respectively since 2006). Some 10,900 such deaths were reported in 2016 - a 67% increase since 2006.

Tobacco use was associated with over 7.1 million fatalities worldwide previous year, with conditions such as respiratory disease and lung cancer.

Overall, there were 54.7 million deaths worldwide in 2016.

The GBD 2016 data also show dietary habits, tobacco use, blood sugar, obesity and low physical activities are major metabolic and behavioural risk factors which lead to NCDs in India.

As a result, high blood glucose, high blood pressure, high body mass index and high total cholesterol were among the top 10 leading risk factors for death for men and women globally.

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