Combined with record high levels of fossil fuel emissions, the atmospheric CO₂ concentration grew at a record rate of almost 3 parts per million per year.
He added that meeting the 2030 target would result in 10 million metric tons of carbon emissions being avoided.
But that was not to be, the new analysis suggests.
For the first time, the data accounts for cross-border flows of carbon emissions. But for now, any major moves to combat climate change will likely happen at the local level. "The peak could be earlier, but we really need a few years to see how emissions develop", said Peters. That's because of the very long atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide, which means we can only emit a fixed amount in total if we want to stay within key climate goals. "We haven't", said study co-author Rob Jackson, an Earth scientist at Stanford University.
China's carbon emissions are projected to grow by 3.5 per cent in 2017, ending a trend that has seen emissions fall for the past three years globally, according to a new study launched at the United Nations climate talks in Bonn.
The renewed increase is driven largely by more fossil fuel burning in China and many other nations.
The report said emissions around the world were rising this year - ending a three-year period of nearly zero rise in emissions - because China's emissions are projected to increase 3.5%. "If we want to ensure that emissions remain flat we have to put policies in place. and the second step is to start to drive emissions down".
Coal's gains were linked to a rise in the price of natural gas that made coal more attractive in power plants, Peters told Reuters, rather than the effects of U.S. President Donald Trump's pro-coal policies.
Salomon also hailed China's role at global level climate actions.
The Paris Agreement calls for holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius, or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, below preindustrial levels by 2100.More news: Franken Accuser Says She Was Afraid To Speak Out At The Time
"Global CO2 emissions appear to be going up strongly once again". "This is very disappointing".
Rahmstorf was not involved with the current work.
¨"The plateau of a year ago was not peak emissions after all", the Global Carbon Project, a group of 76 scientists in 15 countries, wrote of the findings. "With every year that we wait we will have to stop using fossil energy even earlier".
In particular, China's emissions were projected to increase by 3.5 percent in 2017 as the country consumed more of all three of the top fossil fuels - coal, natural gas and oil.
China's government recently launched new measures to reduce the severity of winter air pollution, which has triggered a health crisis in the north of the country in the past two years.
He said Chinese emissions popped back up in 2017 after an economic downturn.
"The news that emissions are rising after a three-year hiatus is a giant leap backwards for humankind", said Dr Amy Luers, a climate policy adviser to former United States president Barack Obama and executive director of Future Earth, which co-sponsored the research. But emissions for the rest of the globe - which, in total, are even larger than China's - will rise by close to 2 percent, according to the projection.
And there's no denying that renewables are continuing to grow around the world - making it hard to know quite what to make of the current emissions rise.
Carbon dioxide emissions rose steadily and slowly starting in the late 1880s with the Industrial Revolution, then took off dramatically in the 1950s. Europe taken as a whole would rank third.