All told, the agreement, negotiated by congressional leaders and released late Wednesday night, provides for more than $400 billion in new spending - $300 billion above the caps and more than $100 billion in "emergency" funding that doesn't count against the spending caps.
The House and Senate approved a bill to keep the government funded through March 23, overcoming opposition from liberal Democrats as well as tea party conservatives to endorse enormous spending increases despite looming trillion-dollar deficits. The bill would also provide long overdue disaster funding for Texas, Florida and Puerto Rico months after hurricanes devastated homes, infrastructure and coastlines there.
The Senate, which began voting at 1:30 a.m. Friday, approved the deal 71 to 28.
Leading up to the vote, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi urged her members to vote against the bill but also urged them to hold their votes back, forcing Republicans to show their strength.
The higher defense spending should allow President Donald Trump to make good on a campaign promise for a US military build-up.
Trump was referring to a provision in the bill that increases spending limits for the next two years and raises the federal debt ceiling until March 2019.
"I am taking this time because I think we have an opportunity now that is nearly matchless we are in a moment when we can all come together to do something really good for the country", Pelosi said.More news: Israel strikes 12 Iranian targets in Syria over downed fighter jet
Senator Paul used Senate rules to delay a vote in the chamber until early Friday morning, angering his colleagues in the process.
On Thursday, House Speaker Paul Ryan gave his full support to the bill to try to rally others in chamber to also vote yes - saying the military is at risk without the money, while acknowledging the deal includes partisan compromises and isn't flawless.
"I'm greatly disappointed that the Speaker does not have the courage to lift the shadow of fear from the lives of these inspiring young people", Pelosi said in a statement, referring to House Speaker Paul Ryan.
United States lawmakers sought to clinch a sweeping budget deal Wednesday that would set spending levels for two years and end the immediate threat of another government shutdown, on the eve of a new deadline for federal funding. Really who is to blame? Ryan also said he thought the Democratic document should be released.
Senate leaders had celebrated the budget deal as a sign they had left behind some of their chronic dysfunction.
73 Democrats voted for the bill, while 67 House Republicans voted against it.
"Give us a chance to allay the fear that is in the hearts of these Dreamers and their families, and remove the tears from the Statue of Liberty observing what is happening here", she said.
Dreamers were shielded from deportation under the Obama-era program called Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA).